KAUSHTEEK BRAHMANO UPNISHAD
Om! May my speech be established in my mind, and my mind be established in my speech. Oh Atma, in the form of light, appear before me. Oh Speech and Mind, both of you, who are the base of Vedic knowledge, may you not annihilate my practice of Vedas. May I always be busy in its practice day and night. May my speech be right and true. Please safeguard me and safeguard the speaker! Please safeguard me and safeguard the speaker! Om Shantih, Shantih, Shantih.
Maharshi Chitra was the great grandson of Mahrishi Garg. Deciding to perform a yajna, he appointed Uddalak, the son of Arun, as the main Ritvik. Uddalak did not go himself to perform the yajna, but in turn asked his son, Shwetaketu, to go and perform the yajna of Maharishi Chitra. Receiving these instructions from his father, Shwetaketu went to the place where yajna was to be performed and sat on the high seat provided by Chitraketu. On seeing him sitting there, Chitra asked him a question, “Is there any secret place with a covering where you will establish me or will you establish me in some other great place which is without any kind of covering?”
Shwetaketu replied, “I do not have any knowledge regarding this.” He left the place and went back to his father and explained the whole situation to him. He requested him to instruct him how to answer such a question, but his father also expressed his inability to answer it. He advised, “We should go to the place of Maharishi Chitra and seek the answer to this question. Like others, we will also receive wealth from him, so let’s go.”
Taking a wooden twig (smidha) in his hand, Maharishi Uddalak accosted Mahrsihi Chitra and told him that he has come to seek knowledge from him. Seeing Uddalak come to him in such an egoless state, Chitra replied, “Oh Uddalak! It speaks of your greatness to come to me in such a manner for seeking knowledge. You will be most respected among the Brahmins and are a fit recipient of the knowledge of Brahm. I will surely answer your question and give you the correct knowledge.”
Mahatama Chitra told him that after performance of the yajna, the yajman, (on whose call the whole yajna is being performed), surely attains heaven after leaving this realm. From proximity of his pran, the moon gets power. During krishan paksh (the time of the waning moon) the moon cannot satiate all those who dwell in heaven.
What is recognised by the name of moon is the gateway to heaven alone. But one who has qualified for that heaven starts thinking what is the point of going there if one has to fall down again from that realm. Those who perform selfless deeds, they transcend the realm of the moon and attain the realm of Brahma. But those who, desiring pleasures, do not leave the realm of the moon; they are dropped back into the earlier realm, following their vrittis, after their good deeds are exhausted.
A person who knows this movement of the creation, which makes one attain heaven or hell, shuns this world and approaches the feet of a Sadguru. Then the guru should ask a question to such a disciple, ‘Who are you?’ The disciple should answer it in the following way: ‘O divinities, who are the cause of the moon which has fifteen kala each in shukla and in krishan paksh (the waxing and waning periods of the moon); who make the pran attain Pitrilok (realm of ancestors) when they appear with faith, after appearing near the moon, which is provider of various kinds of bhog; with the effect of som (nectar) rain and grains, faith and shradha get established in the sperm of a male, which has converted into a person like me after being established in a proper qualified purusha (human-being) and through him alone you established me in the womb. Thus, for years, I have carried this life through ignorance, illusions of the world, and a desire for the ultimate knowledge: Brahm-gyan. Hence, now you please instruct me in the knowledge of keeping this body disease-free for a long time, so that I am able to assimilate this ultimate knowledge.
Upasana of Parmeshwar is the path of Devyan. On treading over it, one reaches the realm of fire, then one goes to the realm of air, from there one reaches the realm of the Sun, then one enters the realm of water and onwards to the realm of Indra (king of the gods). From the realm of Indra one enters into the realm of Prajapati which guides him onwards to the realm of Brahm.
Entering this Brahmlok one comes to a big lake by the name of AAR. After it comes the place called YESHTIH, which is inhabited by Mahurtabhimani Devtas, who are capable of spoiling our good karmas accrued by various yajnas and can generate kam (lust) and krodh (anger). Once one gets free of them, one reaches a river by the name of VIRJA. Just by it’s mere sight, old age flees. Ahead of this lies IL, which is a form of earth. Beyond it is a city where many divinities live. In that city there are gardens, ponds, rivers, and wells. On the other side of the river is another place like the string of a bow. Beyond that is a great place by the name of APRAJITA. Lord Brahma resides here. To guard that palace of Brahma, Indra, in the form of air and ether which represent Medh and Yajna, stands on it’s two gates.
There is one meeting room there, known by the name of VIBHUPRAMATI. In the middle of it is a vedi by the name of VICHAKSHAN. This vedi is very special. A very powerful pran by the name of AMITOJ is the seat of Brahma. His beautiful consort, which is a joy to any mind, by the name of MANASI resides there. There resides another shakti, which is effulgent, adorned with shinning ornaments, and is its mirror image, by the name of CHAYA. The whole cosmic creation is full of four kinds of jeeva, namely; Jarayuj, Andaj, Swedaj and Udbhij. All the animate and inanimate things of the world are the flowers in Brahma’s garden. They also represent his clothes etc. Apasaras, celestial attendants in his court, are known by the names of AMBA and AMBAYAVI. Amba is imbued with motherly bhav while Ambayavi has bhav of budhi (intellect). There are rivers flowing, by the name of AMBYA, which leads one to brahm-gyan or ultimate knowledge. One, who knows the realm of Brahm like this, attains it and only then Brahma orders his servants, “Bring such a person with all the due respect to my court. Because of his sadhna to attain my realm, he has been able to come near Virja river and now he will never be old.”
On getting instruction from Brahma, five hundred apsaras run to welcome the approaching Brahm-gyani. One hundred of them approach him holding kumkum, kesar and turmeric powders, and many kinds of clothes and ornaments, one hundred of them carry different kinds of scents. Thus, they adorn the coming mahatama and make his form similar to Brahma. As he reaches near the afore mentioned water body, he crosses it with his will power. Those who reach that water body with their good deeds alone, drown in that pond! One who crosses it with his will power, reaches near YESHTIH. but all the divines living there cannot face his brahmtej and they run away from him. Then this yogi reaches VIRJA river and sheds off all his good and bad deeds and crosses over it with his mental power.
People who antagonised such a yogi get a part of the bad deeds left over by him, while those who favoured him get a part of the good deeds left at the banks of river VIRJA. As a charioteer travelling at a great speed watches the wheels and its contact with the ground, but still he is not affected by it; in the same way this Brahm gyani watches day and night, good and bad, and everything but is not attached to any of it. Due to the knowledge of Brahm, he attains Brahm.
Then he reaches near a big tree. The moment he approaches it, his nostrils get filled with the scent of Bram-gyan. After this, he reaches a city by the name of SALAJYA, where divine nectar enters into his body. He realizes that this much anand he has never ever experienced. Then he enters the palace Aparajit of Brahma and his whole body is filled up with great effulgence. As he approaches, the guards at the palace gates stand aside and allow him to enter. Then he enters into Brahma’s court VIBHUPRAMATI, where a part of Brahm enters into him. Then he approaches vedi known by the name of VICHAKSHANA, whose front two posts are known as BRIHAT and RATHANTAR Sam, two rear posts are known by the names SHAYAT and NAUDHAS Sam, North-South posts are known by the name of VAROOP and VIRAJ Sam while the Eastern and Western posts are called SHAKVAR and SAM.That vedi provides cosmic sight to the Brahm-gyani. Then he approaches the seat called AMITAJA. Past and present are it’s two front posts, Shridevi and Bhudevi are its rear posts, two big khatwang (swords) by the name of ANUCHAYA are found in the North and South. They both represent BRIHAD and RATHANTAR Ram. BHADRA and YAGIYA Sam are the embellishments on it in the Eastern and Western directions and they represent Rik and Sam Veda. Embellishments in the North and South represent Yajurveda. Rays of the moon are like soft mattress on the seat, UDGEETH is the cover over it and Luxmi in the form of a pillow is there on the seat. Such a great throne is offered to the Brahm-gyani. When such a Brahm-gyani rises to sit on this throne, Brahma asks him a question as to who he is. He should answer this question as below,
“I have appeared from That who is self produced, who is self effulgent, who is Parmeshwar, who is the cause of the whole creation, who is beyond all elements, who is the effulgence of this cosmos, which comprises of all that is animate and inanimate and who is Rit. I am Atma and You are Atma. I am also that what You are.” On getting such a reply Brahma again puts forth a question as to Who He (Brahma) is. The Brahm-gyani replies, “You are Truth itself.” Brahma again puts a question, “That which is called truth, in essence what is it?” He should answer it by saying, “That which is different from the divine and pran, is Truth. It alone is divine and pran too. Whatever is called Truth by our speech is the joining medium of both of them. That whichever is everything is Truth, you in yourself are also that Truth.”
Rishi Kashuteek proclaimed Pran is Brahm. This Brahm has been explained like a king, speech is its queen, ears are its guards to give messages, eyes are bodyguards, mind is its messenger. All his senses are gifts given by divinities to him without asking. One who is the knower of it, all the jeevas in the world offer him things without his asking. Like a beggar roaming in a village asking for bhiksha, gets disheartened on not receiving anything from the villagers and makes up his mind not to take anything from them in future, the same way one who does sadhana of pran, it is his absolute duty that he should not beg for anything. He should stick to this principle. Because the one who is requesting another to give him something, generates a sense of inferiority. Due to this bhav alone, a beggar gets alms and people say, ‘Go, we will provide you education.’
Maharshi Paikhang also proclaimed Pran as Brahm. The sense of sight is beyond speech, it has covered it from all sides. While sense of hearing covers sense of sight from all sides. Mind is beyond sense of hearing and covers it from all sides. Pran is beyond mind and covers it from all sides. That pran is Brahm. All divinities give offerings to this pran without asking anything. It is like a beggar who goes to a village begging, but nobody offers him anything. Frustrated, he decides not to seek anything from them in future. On knowing of his resolve, even those who refused alms to him, ask him to come to them for alms.
Now we will talk of Nirodh (subjugation) of wealth. During purnima or amvasya or any other tithi when a good nakshatra has ascended, those who desire wealth should establish fire, perform parisamoohan, kushastaran, abhisinchan of mantrapot water and shodhan of clarified butter in utensil. Then one should offer the desired ahutis.
The Devi known by the name of Vaani (speech) fulfil all desires. She should help me, who praises pran, attain the desired wealth. For that I am offering this ahuti of ghee, ‘Swaha’.
The Devta of pran is fully empowered to fulfil my desires of wealth and I offer this ahuti to him, ‘Swaha’.
The Devi known by the name of eyes is fully empowered to provide me desired wealth, I offer this ahuti of ghee to her, ‘Swaha’.
The Devi known by the name of ears is provider of all desires. May she grant wealth to me who is pranopasak. I offer this ahuti of ghee to her, ‘Swaha’.
The Mind is fully empowered to provide all the desires. May, prana, grant the desired wealth to me. I offer this ahuti of ghee to it, ‘Swaha’.After offering ahutis like this, one should smell the smoke of the havan, should massage himself with the left over ghee and observe silence. Then one should approach the person from whom one hopes to get wealth. One should convey ones need to him and request him to fulfil it. If the wealth provider is at a distance then one should send a messenger. By observing such a method one can achieve the desired result.
Now we will discuss the method of fulfilment of desires through the usage of speech. If anyone wants to be dear to anyone, first of all one should become dear to the divinities of speech. As explained earlier, one should follow all the preparatory details.
I offer this ahuti of you, o sense of speech into myself. May my desire be fulfilled, ‘Swaha’.
I offer this ahuti of your pran in myself. May my desire be fulfilled, ‘Swaha’.
I offer ahuti of your eyes into myself. May my desire be fulfilled, ‘Swaha’.
I offer ahuti of your mind into myself. May my desire be fulfilled, ‘Swaha’.
I offer ahuti of your Pragya into myself. May my desire be fulfilled, ‘Swaha’.
After ahutis one should smell the smoke of havan, massage the leftover ghee on one’s body, one should accost the person whom one thinks can be the one to fulfill his desires. One should stand in such a way at a distance from him so that air draft flowing there should be in such a direction that it goes to him. Not only one becomes dear to such a person easily but also all the people there will remember even when one has departed from there.
While a man is speaking, he cannot breath-in fully. At that time, pran gets short during speech. Speech and pran are two never-ending ahutis and are eternal. Weather sleeping or awake, a jeev keeps on offering these ahutis. Apart from these, ahutis of other things were offered with karma/action. In the ancient times, those who knew this mystery, never offered karm ahutis alone.
The Great Atman Shushkshringaar, also called pran as Brahm. He advised to pray to this pran as Rik. One who does like this, all the jeevas in the world who want to excel to greatness, come to him. One who has yajur budhi in such a pran, all people who desire to excel, help such a sadhak.
One who has Sambudhi, all those bow down before him, who themselves are desired by many. Many pray to this pran with Shribhav, many consider it as effulgence and then pray to it, many seek it for glory. As a divine bow is best of all kinds of bows, as it is endowed with great power and light, in the same way one who knows this mystery, as detailed above, becomes glorified, effulgent and most comfortable in all the jeevas.
When a sadhak Ritvik prepares a vedi out of bricks and then accepts the fire of pran endowed with the accrued karmas of past lives in ones own self, only then he is able to increase the bank (accrual) of do-able karmas as per the method of yajurveda. The actions, which fructify in procedures laid out in yajur veda, are also sidh in Rigveda. In the deeds fructified in Rigveda are spread the deeds to be fructified in Samveda also. Atma of all these three Vedas is Adhvaryu in the form of pran. Pran is the atma of any Vidya (knowledge).
Now we will discuss procedure realised by Kaushtik Brahmin three times. Keeping the sacred thread on left shoulder, one should perform achman. Then offer three oblations to sun, filling the arghya three times and say, ‘you are called Varg as you left the whole world like a piece of straw, please burn my sins’. During afternoon, again offering water to him one should say, ‘you who are called Ud-dharg, please burn my sins’. The same way one should make an offering to the setting sun and say, ‘you who are called Samvarg, please annihilate my sins’. As a result of this, one’s mind becomes pure and one never indulges in such things during day or night.
Now we will talk of another upasana. During amavasya of every month, in the west of Surya Mandal, in Sushumana named light ray, the establishment of the moon is clearly visible. At that time one should pray to the sun as detailed above. Also put newly born saplings of doob (green grass) in the arghya and pray to devi of Chandra Mandal (realm of moon), ‘O devi, your beautiful heart is located in the realm of the moon, because of that you have full control over eternity, may you bless me in such a way that I should never be beset with anguish over my son ever in my life and weep over him’.
One who prays to her like this, if he has a male child, that child will never die before him. If he is without any son then he should pray as below,
‘O Som in the form of a woman! May you become youthful by taking light of sun. May his power, which is essential for a manifestation of generating offspring in the womb be establish in you. May you be the cause of provisions of grains.
O Som, you are endowed with peaceful qualities, your great nectar is beneficial to all the flowers, it provides power and is powerful enough to win over enemies. That nectar is easily available from grains and water which provide life to all the jeevas. May you light up with tej and be powerful enough to provide nectar to us and may you establish yourself in this world with great glory.
A purusha in the form of dwadash aditya when he makes som, in the form of a woman, happy by his actions and himself remains powerful, such eternally strong Brihaspati (Jupiter) should provide us power and anand. (119)
O Som! Please do not quench your hunger through consumption of our lives, cattle and all our subjects. Those who are our enemies or those for whom we are enemies, you may consume their lives, their children and cattle to become satiated. I am a follower of the devta of this mantra and you.
Thus reciting this richa path one should do anavartan of his right arm.
Now, we will talk of another prayer. During purnima, In the evening when the moon is seen in the East, one should do the following prayer:
O Som! You are king Soma who lives with Uma in the form of nature of the creation. You are adept in all the karmas and are five faced prajapati.
Brahmin is your first mouth. Through it you eat all the kshatriya kings. With the same face, please grant me power to eat and digest grains.
Kshatriya is your second mouth. Through it you consume all the vaishyas. With the same face, please grant me power to eat and digest grains.
Shyen (bird) is your third mouth. Through it you eat all the birds. With the same face, please grant me power to eat and digest grains.
Fire is your fourth mouth. Through it you eat the whole of creation. With the same face, please grant me power to eat and digest grains.
Through your fifth mouth you eat all the jeevas. With the same face, please grant me power to eat and digest grains.
You should not consume my life force, my subjects and my cattle but those of my enemies. I follow and pray to the mantra devta and you both.
Reciting the path/mantra like this one should do anuvartan of dakshin pooja.
After praying to Som as above, one should put one’s hand on the heart of one’s wife sitting by her side and say, ‘O one who walks on the great path, you are of the form of moon, your heart takes care of all the subjects. I am the knower of nectar of sam residing in them. Due to speaking of this truth, may I never feel pain and condolence for a son in my life.’
When a father returns home from distant lands, he should smell the forehead of his son and say, ‘O my son, you have appeared from my own body and heart, please save me from hell. May you live for one hundred years. You should not break my lineage and never feel pain through mind, speech and body. As a cow calls for her offspring, same way I call your name.’
When the gross fire dies, its tej (brightness) goes into the Sun. When the Sun is not visible, its tej goes into the Moon. The tej of the Moon goes into electricity or lightening, while the tej of lightening goes into the air element.
The same way, when a human talks through speech, it is Brahmin only. When speech becomes silent, its tej resides in eyes. When eyes stop seeing, their tej moves into ears. When power of the ears is no more, it’s tej moves into the mind. When the mind becomes still/silent, its tej moves into pran. One who knows this divine secret, even mountains can not overlook his demand or order. Those who have a grudge against such a person are completely annihilated forever.
Once the devtas of speech, eyes, ears and mind moved out the of the body along with pran to prove their importance. Then one by one they entered this body and as a result it started to talk, see, hear and think. But due to the absence of pran, it could not get up and perform any karma. Then all the senses agreed to the superiority of pran over their functions and joining with it they moved in the sky and at last tasted nectar!
When a father is sure of his impending death, he should call his son and put his own life force into him. For this he should touch his whole body and offer his own power of speech, pran, taste, sight, ears, digestion, karma, pains, pleasures, to procreate, to move around, intellect, to him and his son should accept them. If after doing this, father remains alive, then he should either remain totally dependent upon his son or become a sanyasi. Doing like this a son gets all the powers.
Once Pravardan, son of king Divodas, went to Heaven. Seeing Pravardan’s fighting prowess and hard work, Indra-king of devtas became very happy and said, ‘What boon should I grant to you.’ Pravardan replied, ‘ O king of the gods, please grant what you feel is best for the human welfare. What should be granted in the boon, you should decide yourself.’ Indra replied, ‘ Every one knows that boons are not asked for others but for one’s own self, hence you should ask for what you want.’ Pravardan replied, ‘ If that is the case then there is nothing I want to ask for.’ On hearing this Indra remained firm on his word of giving him a boon as he is truth itself. He said, ‘Pravardan, you know me. Knowing me properly is best for the humans.’
He further told him that he was the one who removed the third head of Prajapati’s son and killed him. He gave the body parts of various sanyasis, who were unable to uphold the principles of sanyas, to jackals. Many times demons, who helped Prahlad were killed by him. He also killed attendants of Pulomasur and killed Kaalkashaya himself but nothing whatsoever happened to him. Knowing like this, the realm of good deeds of the knower remains eternal.
One who knows my form, he is not affected by great sin and does not partake in any kind of sin. Even if the desire to perform a sin arises in him, he still remains effulgent.
He again informed him that he is the pran of all praja (subjects). You should pray to that Indra, who knows the atma and had innumerable subjects under his command, in the form of long life and Amrit (nectar).
Pran is Amrit, Pran is life and life is pran. Till pran resides in this body, it is alive. But jeeva with pran can ascend to the other realms and enjoy pleasures of nectar.
Decision about truth and untruth is done with Pragya. One who prays to me in the form of long life and nectar, he enjoys full life in this world and after ascending to heaven gets the anand of eternal nectar there.
Regarding Prana, some knowers say that it has only one bhav. Nobody is able to simultaneously watch, talk, think and hear, hence it is true that pran has one bhav only. One can have understanding of any of the above separately only.
When the mind thinks, all others support it. When eyes starts watching something, all other pranas follow it. The same is the case of ears, when they start hearing all others follow it. Thus we can say all subsidiary pranas help in the work of main pran at any time.
Indra said, ‘all prans are one. These five are the form of that one pran. This is the truth.’
Bereft of speech, those who cannot speak do survive. People who cannot hear, they also keep alive. The Blind also roam around, those who do not have mental power like children keep alive. Even if many body parts are gone, still one can remain alive. But without pran none can survive!
Pran, which makes us realise the power of karma, is the one which initiates one in knowledge and is called pragyatma.
This alone getting hold of this body makes it perform various things, so one should pray to this pran. Pran is famous in jeeva which is the carrier of both pran and pragya and evolves with them. When a jeeva becomes one with main pran, then even during sleeping he doesn’t dream. At that time person with its different names, eyes with its different forms, ears with its different sounds, mind with its different thoughts become one with main prana.
As sparks fly around the flames of a fire, in the same way, when a person realises then various different pranas like speech etc. come out of the main atmic pran and occupy their respective places in the body. After that their respective divinities appear and become the cause of various subsequent things. When a person dies he becomes bereft of all powers. At that moment he does not recognise anyone, neither speaks nor listens to anything and it is said that he is not there. Everything goes and becomes one with pran. All names, thoughts etc. merge with it. But when he again takes birth, as sparks fly from fire flames, similarly all the pranas go and occupy their respective places and divinities appear and their realms & attributes also manifest.
When pran leaves this body, it leaves with all the senses. Speech leaves behind all its names, the nasal leaves behind all smells, eyes become devoid of all scenes, ears let go of all sounds, the mind leaves all the thought process. Thus all the senses are offered into atma in the form of pran and they completely leave their attributes.
Pran is pragya, Pragya is pran. Together they dwell in this body and together they leave it. Now we will discuss this pragya, in which all bhootas become one.
One part of pragya is SPEECH because of which names abound in the outside world; One part of pragya is also developed by the NOSE, for it there is smell outside; One part of pragya is produced by the EYES and because of them there are forms all around; One part of pragya is produced by EARS, for them sounds are there to be heard; TONGUE also produced a part of pragya, for it there is juice of grains to take; HANDS also produced a part of pragya and hence their karma of give and take exists in the world; BODY also generated a part of pragya, this resulted in pains and pleasures for it in the world; A part was generated by the ORGAN of PROCREATION and hence making love and creation of off springs karm is there in the world; FEET also generated apart of it, hence their karm of moving around exists in the world; Pragya completed pragya by generating a part of its own self and all the subjects and desires catering to it were discerned by the budhi (intellect).
With the help of pragya we control speech and acquire names. With it alone one controls the nasals and thus enjoys various smells. Pragya alone gives control over eyes and hence its subjects. It alone gives control over ears and hence the things heard. With Pragya alone one is able to take juices and enjoy them. With pragya only hands perform their karma and body experiences various pains and pleasures. Pragya alone helps the organ of procreation to create and feet to move around. Pragya, by establishing its control over itself accepts various desires.
Speech without pragya is unable to counter any name. At that time it is said that my mind was not there and hence I could not understand anything at that time. All the senses without pragya are of no avail and cannot experience anything. In the absence of pragya even our brain cannot function.
There is no point in knowing SPEECH, one should know the atma which causes it. There is no need to know smell but one should know the atma which experiences it. Desire to know SOUND is useless rather one should try to know atma which listens to it. Desire to know the JUICES of GRAINS is useless, one should pursue the knowledge of atma which knows it. Knowledge of pains and pleasures is useless rather one should try to know the knower of them, i.e. atma. Knowledge of the act of procreation and its anand, is useless rather one should try to know the atma which knows it or is the real cause of it. One should try to know the atma which knows the karma of hands, feet and body. One should not try to know MIND but try to know atma which is busy in manan, (meditation).
All these ten different subjects of the senses in pragya are bhoot matras while the ten senses to perceive them are ten matras of pragya. Without bhoot matras, existence of pragya matras is not possible at all. To make anything possible these both have to come together, any one alone out of them cannot produce anything.
There is no difference between pragya and bhoot. As a circle and spokes of a chariot are dependent on its navel (central axle), in the same way out of bhoot matra and pragya matra, pragya matra is dependent upon prana. This pran alone is without old age, eternal, pleasure giving and pragyatmak. This pran is independent. It does not increase on performance of good deeds or dwindle on performance of bad deeds. Parmeshwar in the form of pran and pragya is the one who pushes a jeev from the higher lokas into the lower realms and makes him perform wrong deeds. This atma is the controller of all the realms, its guard and its owner. A pran having such attributes is actually atma.
From the Gragya lineage, there was a Brahmin by the name of Gargya, whose father’s name was Balaka. He sincerely studied all the Vedas, knew them and use to give lectures on them. He was very famous during that time. He use to live in a place by the name of Ushinar but mostly he was roaming around giving lectures. Sometimes he will be in Kashi (Varanasi), sometimes in Kurukshetra, sometimes in Mithila (Bihar), sometimes in Matsya desh and sometimes in Alandhar (Punjab).
Once he went to Ajatshatru, king of Varanasi. The king himself was also very learned. With a great ego, Gargya questioned the king, ‘I will give you a lecture on Brahmgyan (knowledge of the self).’ On hearing this, the king replied, ‘O Brahmin, I offer 1000 cows for this act of kindness of yours because now everyone is running to king Janak for this, all the time.’
Brahmin Gargya said, ‘ Parmeshwar who resides in the realm of Sun, I pray to him alone with Brahm budhi.’ On this king Ajatshatru questioned, ‘ O Brahmin! Do not speak anything to me of this. Surely this white-robed dev is the greatest of all. It surpasses everybody and is located above everything. It is everybody’s head. I pray to it in this very form. One who prays to the realm of Sun like this, surpasses everybody and gets established at the top and becomes like the forehead of everyone.’
Then the son of Balaka, Gargya, said, ‘I pray to the Prameshwar who is knower of everything residing in the realm of the Moon. That is Brahm.’ Ajatshatru immediately replied,’ O Please do not speak anything to me on this subject. That moon is the king of everything and is pran (life force) of grains. I pray to it like this. One who prays to the purusha located in the realm of Moon in the form of Brahm, he himself becomes the Atma of grains.’
Then Gargya said, ‘ Under the realm of lightening, this Brahm which knows everything, I pray to it. Ajatshatru immediately said,’ O Brahmin do not speak anything. I pray to this effulgence in the form of Atma. One who does like this becomes the Atma of effulgence himself.”
Gargya said, ‘I pray to Parmeshwar located in the realm of clouds in the form of Atma.’ Ajatshatru said, ‘ Please do not speak anything to me regarding this. I pray to this sound as Atma. One who prays to Brahm in the form of Atma of sound located in the realm of clouds, himself becomes the Atma of sound.
Gargya, son of Balak said, ‘ I pray to to purusha located in the sky, who is knower of everything, as Brahm.’ King Ajatshatru said, ‘ Please do not speak to me anything regarding it. I pray to this complete Brahm in the space where there is nothing. One who prays to Brahm located in the sky like this, he is blessed with many ofspring and cattle and they do not die before their time.’
Gargya further said, ‘ I pray to that Brahm, knower of everything, which is located in air.’ Ajatshatru said, ‘ Please do not say anything on it. This is Indra, this is Vaikunth (celestial place of lord Vishnu) and this alone is the one who is never vanquished. I pray to it in the same bhav. One who prays to it like this is never defeated and always victorious over his enemies.’
Gargya said, ‘I pray to the knower of everything located in the realm of fire.’ Ajatshatru said, ‘ Please do not say anything. This Vishasahi, I pray to it in the same manner. A sadhak, who prays to Brahm located in the realm of fire like this, is able to repulse attack of every enemy.’
Gargya said, ‘I pray to the purusha established in realm of water with Brahmbhav.’ Ajatshatru said, ‘Do not talk to me regarding this. He is the Atma of all the jeevas with name, thinking like this I pray to him. One who does like this becomes Atma of all such jeevas.
Thus this Adhidevik upasana has been explained.
Now we will discuss Adhyatmic upasana. Gargya, son of Balaka, said, ‘ I pray to the purusha seen in the mirror with Brahm bhav. A sadhak who prays to such a purusha seen in the mirror becomes like him and his children also become like him.’
Gargya said, ‘I pray to the purusha in the echo as a form of Brahm.’ Ajatshatru said, ‘ Please do not speak anything about this subject. I consider it as secondary. One who prays to it like this, he attains the second and not his own self. He is never alone, there are always people with him.’
Gargya said, ‘Behind a walking person, one can hear his foot steps, I pray to the Brahm that is in that sound.’ Ajatshatru said, ‘Please do not say anything about it, I pray to it in the form of pran. One who does like this enjoys complete life span, he doesn’t die early. His children also enjoy a full life.’
Gargya said, ‘Every physical body has a shadow with it. I pray to the purusha in that shadow with Brahm bhav.’ Ajatshatru said, ‘ Do not talk to me on it. This shadow is nothing but death and I pray to it in that form alone. One who does like this dies at the appropriate time and not before. His children also enjoy full life.’
Well done Gargaya said, ‘ The purusha which resides in this body, I pray to it in the form of Brahm. Ajatshatru said, ‘Please do not talk to me on it. I pray to in the same manner. One who prays to this purusha in the form of Prajpati, is blessed with many subjects and cattle.’
Son of Balaka, Gargya said, ‘Purusha attached to the pragyavan and pran form of Atma roams around in the state of sleep. I pray to it taking it as Brahm. Ajatshatru replied, ‘ Please do not speak anything regarding it. One who does like this the whole world prostrates in front of him.’
Gargya said, ‘I pray to the purusha located in my right eye as Brahm. Ajatshatru said, ‘Please do not talk to me on it. I pray to it as Atma of name, fire and flame. One who prays to it like this becomes Atma of all of them.’
Then Gargya said, ‘I pray to purusha located in the left eye as Brahm. Ajatshatru said, ‘Please do not bother to talk to me on it. It is the Atma of truth, effulgence, lightening. One who does like this becomes Atma of all of them.’
On hearing this the great, famous Gargya, son of Balaka, fell silent. Then Ajatshatru said, ‘Is this the limit of your knowledge of brahm?’ Garya said, ‘ Yes, I know only upto this stage.’ Then Ajatshatru replied that it means that your statement of giving knowledge of Brahm to me was of no substance. Only karta of all purusha that have been explained by you is really to be known. Upon this Gargya, son of Balaka, accosted Ajatshatru with a twig in his hand and expressed his desire to be his disciple. Ajatshatru replied that it isn’t right for a kshatriya king to accept a Brahmin as his disciple. It will be against the current behaviour in society. He asked Gargya to accompany him and he would surely teach the knowledge of Brahm to him.
The King held the hand of Gargaya and walked to a place where a person was sleeping. He tried to wake him up by calling many names like King Som, Brihan and Paundarvasa. Despite all these calls, that person did not awake. Then the king struck him with a stick, as result that very moment the sleeping man got up. Ajatshatru asked Gargaya,’ Tell me where this man was sleeping unconsciously, in which space he was sleeping and now from where he has come into this awakened stage.’
Gargaya could not reply to the questions of the king. He was unable to understand this mystery. King Ajatshatru replied, ‘I will tell you the place where he was sleeping, where he awoke and from where he came to that place. In the lotus of heart there are many nerves like Hita. They spread to all the body from the heart. They are as subtle as 1000th part of tip of a hair. These nerves are filled with crux of many kinds. Out of them, some are white, some are yellow, some grey, black etc. In the sleeping stage a person is roaming in those nerves only.
In the sleeping stage when he is not dreaming, he is absorbed in pran. At that moment all the senses are established in prana. When a person gets awake, like sparks coming out of rising flames, senses come out of the fire of Agni and move towards their respective resting places. Then Tehri presiding deities appear from pran and establish their respective subjects. As a knife is kept in a leather belt (as barbers do), the same way a thumb sized purusha representing Parmeshwar resides in the heart. As Agni resides in the wood etc. though not seen, in the same way Atma resides in the whole body. As all the people with a rich man remain under his control, in the same way all the different kinds of prana remain under the control of Atma. A rich man enjoys his comforts along with people surrounding him. All those who surround him are not using all his comforts but actually they are using the rich man. In the same way the Atma uses various senses and the senses use Atma also. Till Indra, king of the gods, did not know his Atma, the all demons kept on defeating him in the battlefield. In the same way, the knower of Atma annihilates all his sins and becomes the greatest and the owner of all. One who knows like this gets all the fruits mentioned earlier.
Thus spoke this Upnishad…Om! Shantih! Shantih! Sahntih!